Oil - Fast Facts: oil fuelled the industrial revolution, but the Oil Shocks of 1973 and 1979, when oil price rose from $5 to $45 per barrel, made Coal, natural gas and nuclear the fuel of choice for the electricity generation. Saudi Arabia (13%), Russia (13%), the US (9%), Iran (5%), China (5%), Canada (4%), USE (4%), Venezuela (4%), Mexico (4%), Nigeria (3%) are the 10 largest oil producers, with Iraq, Angola and Norway in the top 10 oil exporters. Oil is a major source of raw material for plastics, chemicals, fertilizer and fabrics. Leading oil and gas Exploration and Production companies are referenced in CCL's country guides.
Gas - Fast Facts: the US and Canada produce 25% of the world's gas, Russia 20%, Qatar 5%, Iran 4%, Norway 3%, the EU 16%, Africa 2%. Natural Gas is found in pockets, or within oil and coal deposits. It burns more cleanly than oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide, and it is projected Gas will account for about 25% of global energy demand by 2030. Compressed and liquefied gas are also used for vehicle fuel. Leading oil and gas exploration and production companies are referenced in CCL's country guides.
Offshore Platforms - Fast Facts: oil rigs drill wells, extract oil and natural gas and store product until it can be brought to shore for refining and marketing. Some are fixed to the ocean floor, some float, and remote subsea wells are connected to platforms by flow lines and umbilical connections. The Petronius Platform is a compliant tower in the Gulf of Mexico, 610m above the ocean floor, making it one of the word's tallest structures. The Hinernia gravity base structure (GBS) in Canada is the worlds largest offshore platform, in the Jeanne D'Arc Basin off the coast of Newfoundland.
Onshore Oil and Gas - Fast Facts: the earliest known oil wells were drilled in China in 347 AD, using bits attached to bamboo poles. In North America the first commercial oil well went into production in Oil Springs, Ontario, in 1858. The first oil in England was discovered in 1919 in Derbyshire, with on-shore oil production dominated by the discovery, in 1973, of the Wytch Farm Oilfield in Dorset. Around 2,000 wells have now been drilled onshore in the UK, with about 120 sites active currently. In June 2013, The British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) estimated 1,329 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of shale gas resources between Wrexham and Blackpool in the west, and Nottingham and Scarborough in the east.
Drilling - Fast Facts: the creation and life of a well is in 5 stages - Planning, Drilling, Completion, Production, Abandonment. First a bore hole is drilled into the earth with a drill string attached, followed by steel pipe, cemented in, and deeper drilling. Mud is pumped down the drill pipe to cool it and lift rock cuttings to the surface. Perforations are then made in the casing to allow oil to flow from the surrounding rock into the production tubing, to complete it. Natural pressure is often enough for oil or gas to flow to the surface, but if not artificial lift may be needed, including downhole pumps or pump jacks. As the well flows into production Christmas trees are fitted to regulate pressure, control flow and allow access to the wellbore, plus connect flow to pipes and tanks. Workovers and well intervention techniques to pull and replace tubing, and water, steam or CO2 flooding, are used to increase reservoir pressure and extend the life of wells. When the commercial life of a well reaches its economic limit it is abandoned, by removing tubing and filling the well bore with concrete. In 2009 Deepwater Horizon, an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore oil rig, drilled the deepest oil well to date, at 10,683m. In 2012 Exxon Neftegas completed drilling the world's deepest well in the Chayvo oil field on the Shakhalin shelf in the Russian Far East.
Marine - Fast Facts: Crude Tankers, including mammoth Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs, up to 550,00 DWT) move 2,000,000,000 metric tons of unrefined crude oil from points of extraction to refineries around the world every year. The two largest working supertankers are the TI Europe and the TI Oceania, stretching 380m. FPSOs (Floating Production Storage and Offloading Units), usually converted oil tankers, receive oil from platforms and process the product while it is on board; they are preferred in frontier offshore regions as they are easier to install. FPSO BW Pioneer, built and operated by BW Offshore for Petrobras is the FPSO operating in the deepest waters, 2,600m in Block 249 Walker Ridge in the US Gulf of Mexico, with the conversion carried out at Keppel Shipyard in Singapore. SBM Offshore was awarded Shell Stones contract for the US Gulf of Mexico in even deeper waters in 2013. As of November 2013 there were 277 Floating Productions in use around the world.
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