Energy Sectors - Introduction

Energy Sectors

At CCL, for 35 years we have been very hydrocarbon, just as the world has been. Fossil fuel accounts for 81% of World Energy Consumption, with Nuclear accounting for just 6%, and all Renewables combined 13%, even if Solar and Geothermal Energy have the potential to power the world many times over. Oil is the world's largest energy resource, at 33%, although Coal grew in 2009 to 27%.

So E&P, Transport, Refining & Marketing of hydrocarbons also consumes 80% of CCL's energy! But CCLs Consultants are ideally placed to deliver in all areas of the Energy Sector.

We also believe that people's careers follow trajectories, so once someone has started out on a career path in the culture of an industry, they rarely switch to Commercial or Finance sectors, along the Thinks, People and Money school of career counselling. Clients also tend to prefer to hire from within their own sector. However we do think that Engineers, Managers, Specialists and Project Professionals cross-over well between industrial sectors.

We cannot really do justice on this website to the full range of Energy sectors, but here is a our short take, some fast facts, on the sort of industries our Consultants work in.

World Energy Consumption

In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules (132,000 TWh), equivalent to an average power use of 15 terawatts.

 Energy Source  1990  2000  2008
 Fossil TWh  83374  94493  117076
 Fossil %  81%  80%  80%
 Nuclear TWh  6113  7857  8283
 Nuclear %  6%  7%  6%
 Renewable TWh  13082  15337  18492
 Renewable %  13%  13%  13%
 Total TWh  102569  117687 143851

World Energy Production

Coal - Fast Facts: Indonesia and Australia export 60% of the worlds coal, with China consuming 28% of it, North America 25% and the EU 14%. About 150 years of proven and economically recoverable world reserves of coal are left (more than oil or gas), although coal is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions.

Oil - Fast Facts: oil fuelled the industrial revolution, but the Oil Shocks of 1973 and 1979, when oil price rose from $5 to $45 per barrel, made Coal, natural gas and nuclear the fuel of choice for the electricity generation. Saudi Arabia (13%), Russia (13%), the US (9%), Iran (5%), China (5%), Canada (4%), USE (4%), Venezuela (4%), Mexico (4%), Nigeria (3%) are the 10 largest oil producers, with Iraq, Angola and Norway in the top 10 oil exporters. Oil is a major source of raw material for plastics, chemicals, fertilizer and fabrics. Leading oil and gas Exploration and Production companies are referenced in CCL's country guides.

Gas - Fast Facts: the US and Canada produce 25% of the world's gas, Russia 20%, Qatar 5%, Iran 4%, Norway 3%, the EU 16%, Africa 2%. Natural Gas is found in pockets, or within oil and coal deposits. It burns more cleanly than oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide, and it is projected Gas will account for about 25% of global energy demand by 2030. Compressed and liquefied gas are also used for vehicle fuel. Leading oil and gas exploration and production companies are referenced in CCL's country guides.

Nuclear - Fast Facts: In 2013 the World had 434 reactors with 66 under construction, delivering 13% of world electricity demand. Fission is how atomic energy is produced - via the release of energy in the decay of radioactive material, such as Uranium. After the Chernobyl disaster in 1996 investments in nuclear power were small, exacerbated with shutdowns in Japan, Germany and Italy after Fukishima, but recent UK announcements include investment in Moorside from Westinghouse and plans to start construction on Hinkley Point C. Leading UK companies are BHP Billiton, Urenco, Horizon, Magnox and Sellafield. Leading US companies are GE Hitachi and Westinghouse, with the Nuclear Industry Association having 260 members involved in the civil nuclear industry.

Oil & Gas Assets

Offshore Platforms - Fast Facts: oil rigs drill wells, extract oil and natural gas and store product until it can be brought to shore for refining and marketing. Some are fixed to the ocean floor, some float, and remote subsea wells are connected to platforms by flow lines and umbilical connections. The Petronius Platform is a compliant tower in the Gulf of Mexico, 610m above the ocean floor, making it one of the word's tallest structures. The Hinernia gravity base structure (GBS) in Canada is the worlds largest offshore platform, in the Jeanne D'Arc Basin off the coast of Newfoundland.

Onshore Oil and Gas - Fast Facts: the earliest known oil wells were drilled in China in 347 AD, using bits attached to bamboo poles.  In North America the first commercial oil well went into production in Oil Springs, Ontario, in 1858. The first oil in England was discovered in 1919 in Derbyshire, with on-shore oil production dominated by the discovery, in 1973, of the Wytch Farm Oilfield in Dorset. Around 2,000 wells have now been drilled onshore in the UK, with about 120 sites active currently. In June 2013, The British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) estimated 1,329 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of shale gas resources between Wrexham and Blackpool in the west, and Nottingham and Scarborough in the east.

Drilling - Fast Facts: the creation and life of a well is in 5 stages - Planning, Drilling, Completion, Production, Abandonment. First a bore hole is drilled into the earth with a drill string attached, followed by steel pipe, cemented in, and deeper drilling. Mud is pumped down the drill pipe to cool it and lift rock cuttings to the surface. Perforations are then made in the casing to allow oil to flow from the surrounding rock into the production tubing, to complete it. Natural pressure is often enough for oil or gas to flow to the surface, but if not artificial lift may be needed, including downhole pumps or pump jacks. As the well flows into production Christmas trees are fitted to regulate pressure, control flow and allow access to the wellbore, plus connect flow to pipes and tanks. Workovers and well intervention techniques to pull and replace tubing, and water, steam or CO2 flooding, are used to increase reservoir pressure and extend the life of wells. When the commercial life of a well reaches its economic limit it is abandoned, by removing tubing and filling the well bore with concrete. In 2009 Deepwater Horizon, an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore oil rig, drilled the deepest oil well to date, at 10,683m. In 2012 Exxon Neftegas completed drilling the world's deepest well in the Chayvo oil field on the Shakhalin shelf in the Russian Far East.

Marine - Fast Facts: Crude Tankers, including mammoth Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs, up to 550,00 DWT) move 2,000,000,000 metric tons of unrefined crude oil from points of extraction to refineries around the world every year. The two largest working supertankers are the TI Europe and the TI Oceania, stretching 380m. FPSOs (Floating Production Storage and Offloading Units), usually converted oil tankers, receive oil from platforms and process the product while it is on board; they are preferred in frontier offshore regions as they are easier to install. FPSO BW Pioneer, built and operated by BW Offshore for Petrobras is the FPSO operating in the deepest waters, 2,600m in Block 249 Walker Ridge in the US Gulf of Mexico, with the conversion carried out at Keppel Shipyard in Singapore. SBM Offshore was awarded Shell Stones contract for the US Gulf of Mexico in even deeper waters in 2013. As of November 2013 there were 277 Floating Productions in use around the world.

Renewable Energy Sources

Renewable energy comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat and account for 16% of global energy consumption (more than Nuclear), 10% being biomass, and 3.4% being hydroelectricity.

Hydroelectricity Fast Facts: hydroelectricity is produced by the falling and flowing of water and is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16% of global electricity consumption, in 150 countries. China is the largest producer, with the Three Gorges Dam being one of the worlds 3 hydroelectricity plants larger than 10GW, the other two being the Itaipu Dam in Brazil and Guri Dam In Venezuela. Hydropower is a very cheap source of energy (once the dam is built) with no vulnerability to fuel price, and no carbon dioxide emissions; but dams attract a lot of criticism from their environmental impact. Norway produces 99% of its domestic electricity from hydro stations. The National Hydropower Association has 200 member companies. CCL's Engineers, Managers, Specialists and Project Professionals are ideally suited to the hydroelectric sector.

Wind Power Fast Facts:
 wind is widely used in Europe, Asia and the US, with Denmark achieving 21% stationary electricity production, Portugal 18%, Spain 16%, Ireland 14% and Germany 9%, making it the second most successful renewable source, although it is more expensive per unit of electricity than fossil fuels. The tower-mounted three-blade turbines, typically tens of metres in diameter, are emission-free and quick to install, on-shore and off-shore. CCL's Engineers, Managers, Specialists and Project Professionals are ideally suited to the wind sector.

Solar Power Fast Facts:
Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture and the International Energy projects that solar power could provide a third of the global final energy demand after 2060, at very low CO2 emissions levels, with PV panels on house and business roofs becoming more and more common. But it is the most expensive form of renewable energy, so rarely economical except locally. CCL's Engineers, Managers, Specialists and Project Professionals are ideally suited to the Solar sector.

Geothermal Fast Facts:
 geothermal energy is used in 70 countries, mostly for heating, including piping hot water directly into buildings in Iceland. It uses the heat in the Earth's core, from rocks or water near the surface, or by drilling deep wells. But it only accounts for 0.4% of global generating capacity. CCL's Engineers, Managers, Specialists and Project Professionals are ideally suited to the Geothermal sector.

Boimass and Biofuels:
 whilst the predominant fuel until the beginning of the 19th Century, biofuels now has a small share. Biofuels are organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, such as plants, grain, sugar cane, vegetable oil, which can be converted into fuels, chemicals, materials and power. Even so, cars are produced that can run on a mix of fuels, including biofuel. CCL's Engineers, Managers, Specialists and Project Professionals are ideally suited to the Biofuel sector.

Marine and hyrokinetic (MHK) Energy - Fast Facts:
 MHK is a new renewable energy sector, involving wave energy, tidal turbines, in-stream turbines, ocean current turbines. Ocean Energy can also potentially generate electricity using the temperature difference between ocean water and surface water. Waves crashing onto shores add up to 2-3 million megawatts. CCL's Engineers, Managers, Specialists and Project Professionals are ideally suited to the Marine sector.

For Recruitment throught the Energy Sector, be it Oil & Gas, Coal or Nuclear, or any of the Hydroelectric, Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Biofuels and Marine renewable energy sectors, contact CCL to discuss careers and candidates.

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